Wednesday, April 21, 2021

Messianic Jews on Two House Theology

by Stan Feldsine

This paper will focus primarily on the Hebrew Roots Movement and the Two House theology, specifically their definition of identity of Israel. If it can be shown that the Two House definition of Israel is in error, then the whole theology falls apart, because it is built upon the basic assumption that all believing Gentiles today are Israel as distant descendants of the 10 Northern Tribes.

Secondarily, the paper will focus on the Messianic Jewish position on the relevance of the Law of Moses to believers today.

Who are Messianic Jews?

The term Messianic Jew and Messianic Believer has been co-opted by a number of groups, and what is meant by the term depends on who is using it. The scriptural use of the term is pointed out by Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum, as stated in his book, "The Remnant of Israel; The History, Theology, and Philosophy of the Messianic Jewish Community", (Page 8).

Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum shows that a Jewishness is scripturally defined as follows:

"From the Abrahamic Covenant a simple definition of jewishness can be deduced. It lies in the repeated statement that a nation will come through the line of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and thus defines Jewishness in terms of nationality." (Gen_12:1-3, Gen_15:4-5, Gen_26:2-5, Gen_26:24, Gen_28:13-15)

Dr. Fruchtenbaum shows that a Messianic Jew is scripturally defined as follows on page 15:

"What then is a Messianic Jew? If a Jew is a descendant of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, which we believe to be the proper definition, then a Messianic Jew is a Jew who believes that Yeshua/Jesus is his or her Messiah. By faith Messianic Jews align themselves with other believers in Yeshua/Jesus whether Jews or Gentiles, but nationally they identify themselves with the Jewish people."

As we work through the list of Messianic Jewish organizations below, under "Messianic Jews and the Identity of Israel", we will find unanimous agreement with Dr. Fruchtenbaum on this definition.

We also see that Paul agrees with this definition in Romans 11. He defines the Remnant of Israel who are today's Messianic Jews as "his people" (vs 1), the present time "Remnant chosen by grace", who are believers in Messiah (vs 5), who are the branches still attached to the root (vs 17). Today's Messianic Jews are the Remnant of Israel, ethnically, and consist of all 12 tribes (Act_26:7).

Why Does the Messianic Jewish View of Two House Matter?

Eddie Chumney writes an informative article defining Two House theology, which is posted on his website ( This article gives a good overview of the theological underpinnings of the Hebrew Roots Movement from a leader in that movement.

Fundamentally, the Hebrew Roots Movement states that the northern 10 tribes of Israel were "lost" forever, having been thoroughly assimilated into the nations surrounding Assyria and out to the world. The following quote is under the subheading "The Romans Take the House of Judah into Worldwide Captivity" in Chumney's article:

"The descendents of the Northern Kingdom (house of Israel) lost their identity of being a nation of people from the Northern Kingdom (house of Israel) when they were taken captive by the nation of Assyria (around 721 BCE) and assimilated into all the nations of the world."

Chumney continues (under the subheading "The Northern Kingdom Becomes Future Christianity") to explain what has become of the 10 Northern Tribes. The people of the ethnic 10 Northern tribes were called "not His people", and were "without mercy", and therefore "lost forever". However, if the Gentile "descendants" would repent, then those Gentile "descendants would "again" be called His people". Chumney claims that all Gentiles who repent today, according to Peter in 1Pe_2:5-6, 1Pe_2:9-10, are of the "House of Israel", and are Christians who have become "His people" and no longer "not my people".

"Once again, in Hosea (Hoshea) 1, the G-d of Israel proclaimed that the Northern Kingdom (house of Israel) would not be His people (Lo-Ammi — Hosea 1:9) and He would have no mercy (Lo-ruhamah — Hosea 1:6) upon them. But, if they would repent, (teshuvah) (Jeremiah [Yermiyahu] 3:5, 12-13) they would be called again His people (Hosea [Hoshea] 1:10). The Apostle (Shaliach) Peter (Kefa) makes a direct link with those from among the nations who have accepted Yeshua/Jesus as the Jewish Messiah (Mashiach) with the prophecy that the G-d of Israel made to the Northern Kingdom (house of Israel) in Hosea (Hoshea) 1."

Two House Theology is Theological anti-Semitism and Replacement Theology

Chumney asserts that Hebrew Roots is not a replacement theology. However, he defines Israel as the 2 Southern tribes alone, and that the ethnic 10 Northern Tribes no longer exist. Of course, if the ethnic descendants of the 10 Northern Tribes no longer exist, then the logic is that they can't be replaced. From his article:

"In conclusion, in order for restoration to come to both the house of Israel (Christianity) and the house of Judah (Judaism), both houses of Israel need to recognize who each other are Biblically. The house of Israel (Christianity) needs to recognize that they have NOT replaced the natural seed of Abraham (Avraham), Isaac (Yitzchak) and Jacob (Ya’acov) but have been grafted into the natural olive tree. The house of Judah (Judaism) needs to recognize the house of Israel (Christianity) as being Messianic Israel."

This creates an identity conflict due to copious amounts of scripture supporting an ethnic Remnant of Israel (all 10 Tribes) preserved from the Assyrian exile (Isa_11:11, Isa_11:16, Isa_37:4, Jer_50:17-20). Scripture is clear that there IS a Remnant from the 10 Northern Tribes, and since they DO exist, Chumney's adopted Two House theology displaces them with the "church / House of Israel". The only way Chumney or anyone else can claim that Two House theology does not teach Replacement theology is if they deny the existance of the Remnant of the 10 Northern tribes whom they are displacing. (Passages referring to the Remnant - Isa_10:20-22, Isa_44:21-22, Isa_49:5-7, Jer_30:10-11, Jer_31:1-2, Jer_31:16, Jer_31:7-8, Jer_31:27-28, Jer_31:36, Jer_46:27-28, Jer_51:5, Zec_10:6, Isa_46:4, Ezr_9:8, Ezr_9:13-15, Eze_11:13-17, Mic_5:7-8, Mic_7:18-20, Zep_3:12)

Replacement theology may or may not include malice towards those being replaced. Traditionally, replacement theology such as that of Covenant theology which claims the church has taken the role and blessings of Israel are malicious towards present day Israel. (I.E. the BDS Movement, political isolation of Israel, etc.) The Hebrew Roots Movement does not appear to have malicious intent in replacing Israel with believing Gentiles, however, malicious intent is not a determining factor in whether or not a theology seeks to replace Israel. It can be done out of ignorance.

For scriptural support of an ethnic remnant of all 12 tribes, see "Who is Israel, and Other Identities" under the subheading "Who is the Remnant of Israel":

Also see "The Restoration - Spiritual or Ethnic Israel" under the subheading "Specific Passages on the Return of Israel From Assyria."

Messianic Jewish Alliances Refute the Hebrew Roots Movement

At this point, we will define the issues of the identity of Israel and the Law of Moses.

Joint Position Paper of Messianic Alliances

The IAMCS as released an excellent and thorough position paper titled "One Law Two Sticks - A Critical Look at the Hebrew Roots Movement". It is "A position paper of the International Alliance of Messianic Congregations and Synagogues (IAMCS) Steering Committee".

This paper was released by the IMJA (International Messianic Jewish Alliance), MJAA (Messianic Jewish Alliance of America), IAMCS (International Alliance of Messianic Congregations and Synagogues) and UMJC (Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations) in 2000.

This paper is written by Messianic Jews, and provides an overview of the Hebrew Roots Movement, it's roots, history and beliefs from the Messianic Jewish viewpoint. The Messianic Jewish community strongly refutes Hebrew Roots Movement teaching in this paper, as well as on their websites, books, and other sources.

One Law Two Sticks - A Critical Look at the Hebrew Roots Movement (Jan 15, 2014)

The Ephraimite Error Paper

The "One Law Two Sticks ..." paper linked above contains a link to a second supporting position paper, released by the International Messianic Jewish Alliance (IMJA) in 2000 as well, endorsed and published by the MJAA, IAMCS, and UMJC. The article is titled "The Ephraimite Error", and was written by Kay Silberling Ph.D., with committee members Daniel Juster Th.D., and David Sedaca M.A.

The Ephraimite Error - Full Article (2000)…/ephraimite%20error.pdf

The Ephraimite Error - A Short Summary (2000)

In the interest of full disclosure, we should note that the Ephraimite Error generated no small amount of controversy from the Hebrew Roots Movement. Following the release of "The Ephraimite Error", Sandy Bloomfield published a paper documenting the controversy, and some of the disagreements that she had with the Ephraimite Error paper.

The Errors of "The Ephraimite Error" by Sandy Bloomfield

Bloomfield seems primarily to be offended by perception of "Hebraic Hate Speech" in the Ephraimite Error paper. In addition, there are several examples of "Indefensible and False Accusations". While it may be true that Bloomfield and those she represents do not fit all of the accusations from the Ephraimite Error paper, the fact is there are those in the movement that do fit the charges leveled. The fact that some do fit and some do not fit is due to a lack of consistency among those who are a part of the Hebrew Roots Movement. There is no systematic theology, and no Statement of Faith, and beliefs between sects within the movement are confusing and varied.

Following or around the time of the Sandy Bloomfield paper, Dan Juster, Monte Judah, and Eddie Chumney had a meeting (March 27, 2003). Eddie Chumney published the notes from the meeting.

Dan Juster, Monte Judah and Eddie Chumney Two House Meeting

It appears that the main purpose of the meeting was not primarily to resolve differences in interpretation regarding Two House theology, but rather, to foster unity in spite of the differences. Additionally, this paper presented another opportunity for Eddie Chumney and Monte Judah to restate their beliefs. From the paper:

"We pray that this paper affirming what we teach about the two houses of Israel will be a positive catalyst within the Messianic / Hebraic roots movement to promote further unity among the brethren. We pray that those in position of authority and congregational leaders will share this paper with their members to help promote a more common understanding of the two house teaching. We pray that these same leaders within the Messianic / Hebraic roots movement will take responsibility and use the efforts made by Monte Judah and Eddie Chumney with Dan Juster through the help and encouragement of Paul Wilbur to help promote a greater unity and fellowship."

It is difficult to imagine how they think they will "foster unity" by promoting a theology that declares that people who are ethnic descendants of the 10 Northern tribes don't exist, when the very people they are trying to foster unity with include ethnic descendants of those tribes. Nevertheless, Dan Juster appeared to be gracious and dialed back some of the rhetoric.

Dan posted the following letter on July 18, 2003

Need Link

.July 18, 2003

To Whom it May Concern,

This is to report on a meeting with Eddie Chumney and Monty Judah on the Two House Theory on Theology. I wanted to report that we had a cordial and full dialogue on the issues of theology and were able to distinguish their views from other views of the Two House movement.

My concern with some of the Two House views had to do with their being border line heresy or even actual heresy because the N. T. emphasis on the Gospel being offered to all peoples was down played and the N. T. was interpreted to mean that the preaching of the Gospel today is mostly an offer of salvation to Judah and the lost northern tribes of Israel. In addition, it was of concern that there was teaching that Christians should claim their part in the land of Israel, which could be understood in a way of displacement.

Monty and Eddie do not hold these views and should be treated as brothers with whom we are in fellowship. This does not mean that I agree with all their emphases, but that is a different matter than heresy. One should read their full statement to understand their position. I want to make a few comments on their statement:

Monty and Eddie hold that the Body of Believers is gathering people who are physical descendants from the lost tribes in significant numbers. They do not claim to know the numbers. They embrace that the Body includes multitudes from all nations as well. However, they see the Body of Believers as having an "Israeliteish" character. While I do not agree with the emphasis on the lost tribes, I do not see this as heresy. Puritans and many others have seen the Church as "Israelitis" in some way.

Monty and Eddie hold to a high regard for Torah. However, they generally, except for circumcision, believe that all are called to the same practice of Torah. I do not agree. Indeed all are called to apply the Torah, but it is applied differently among Jews and Gentiles. Paul notes in Galatians 5, that if one is circumcised, one is bound to keep the whole Torah. Ipso facto then one who is not circumcised is not bound the whole Torah in the same way. This is am important distinction of Jewish calling. Colossians 2, and Romans 14 and Acts 15 apply a distinction between Jews and Gentiles in the application of Torah. This is a matter for dialogue, however, and not mutual rejection.

Monty and Eddie give true Christians an inheritance in the land as Israelites. This is in an eschatological larger Israel connected to the events of the return of the Lord. The other nations will live in their own territories in the Millennial Age. This is really very similar to all Pre-millennial views where the Church as the Bride of the Messiah is with him where He is and He rules from Israel. Tom Hess in his book Pray for the Peace of Jerusalem, sees eschatological Israel as 1500 miles square and hence able to accommodate a huge number. Monty and Eddie are not encouraging Christians to move to Israel or claim their inheritance in the present Israel.

We trust that further dialogue will sharpen us both and will enable us to all come to greater clarity on the issues involved.

I thank Eddie and Monty for their openness to calmly and patiently discuss all the issues involved. This is my personal response. Others will have to work on their own response to Monty and Eddies statement. However, all should respond to their latest statement and not heresay.

Sincerely in the Messiah,

Daniel Juster

Around the same time as the meeting between Dan Juster, Monte Judah, and Eddie Chumney, Dan Juster and Russ Resnick published the following paper:

ONE LAW MOVEMENTS - A Challenge to the Messianic Jewish Community

The above paper is a balanced and fair article that argues against several of the Hebrew Roots Movement arguments such as "One law shall be for the native-born and for the stranger who dwells among you", the "mixed multitude" of Exo_12:38, the meanings of Mat_5:17-18 and Acts 15, the statement James makes that "Moses has been read every week in the Synagogue", and others from a Messianic Jewish viewpoint.

In 2014, Rick Erb produced another letter lamenting Messianic Jewish disagreement with Two House Theology, and appealed to unity.

The Ephraimite Exception Error

It is clear that there is a huge divide between the Messianic Jewish body and the Hebrew Roots Movement body regarding Two House Theology. It seems that unity would be difficult to achieve if one group doesn't believe the other group exists. This dispute centers around the identity of Israel, with Messianic Jews affirming that a Remnant of Israel returned from Assyria and is ethnically present today, and the Hebrew Roots Movement denying that such an ethnic Remnant exists, and replacing them with Gentile descendants of those Israelites who were absorbed into the nations surrounding Assyria and the world. Unity would be best achieved if the Hebrew Roots Movement community would cease their denial that ethnic descendants from the Northern Kingdom exist today as the Remnant of Israel.


The Disagreement Defined

As mentioned previously, the Hebrew Roots Movement has no systematic theology, and appears to be a loose collection of teachers and teachings. Although there are many disagreements within the movement, there are a two main points that they all seem to agree with:

The Identity of Israel

The Hebrew Roots Movement teaches the Two House theology that the 10 tribes of the northern kingdom of Israel were "lost" during their Assyrian exile because they were absorbed into the Gentile nations and assimilated into the Gentile practices and cultures. They no longer exist as ethnic Israelites, hence the term "lost tribes of Israel" is used to describe them.

The Hebrew Roots Movement teaches that today, the Gentile descendants of these "lost tribes of Israel" are today's Christians and make up the "church / House of Israel". As such, saved Gentiles are the true jews (
Rom_8:28-29) and the Israel of God (Gal_6:16). Most believers today, including Messianic Jews flatly reject this identity theft. Messianic Jews representing all 12 tribes are themselves the "Israel of God" and the "true Jews".

One Law One People (Mosaic Law Keeping or Torah Observance)

One Law One People is the idea that everyone, Jews and believing Gentiles (who are really Israel), should be keeping Torah, including the Law of Moses as given to Israel at Sinai. Gentiles fall under this requirement due to the belief that saved they are descendants of the 10 Northern Tribes. They claim we have been grafted in (Rom_11:11-24) have become part of the commonwealth of Israel (Eph_2:11-13) and are now 'my loved one' who is not my loved one (Rom_9:25-26) thus changing our identity to that of Israel, and no longer Gentiles.

Additionally, they believe that the "New Covenant" is really a "Renewed Covenant", that never did away with Mosaic Law, but added the Holy Spirit so that the Mosaic Law could be better kept. Although there is some variation in the application of this, there is near universal agreement that Gentiles fall under Mosaic Law as 10 Tribe Israelites. Additional information about "Renewed Covenant" can be found at the following links.

Did Yeshua Give us a "New" Covenant, or a "Renewed" Covenant"?

Hebrew Roots Movement - New Covenant or "Renewed" Covenant

"ARE NON-JEWS TO EXPRESS THEIR FAITH IN MESSIAH AFTER THEY ARE SAVED BY BEING OBEDIENT TO THE TORAH ???" by Eddie Chumney for a Hebrew Roots Movement perspective on One Law One People.

There is a high degree of importance placed on the day of Sabbath, keeping feasts and festivals, and adhering to dietary restrictions. Christians who disagree are considered pagans, Christians who agree and keep the law are considered to be Israel.

See "One Law Two Sticks..." Pg 1-2).


Messianic Jews and the Identity of Israel

Now we will take a look at what the Messianic Jewish community actually has to say about the Hebrew Roots Movement and Two House Theology.

As of the writing of this paper, this author has not found a single Messianic Jewish organization or congregation that supports Two House Theology. The following list represents individual Messianic Jewish ministry's and their statements regarding the identity of Israel. They uniformly agree that Israel's identity is that of ethnic descendance from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob as outlined by Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum at the top of this article.

The Identity of Israel

Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations -

From (

"God chose Israel, the Jewish people, and entered into an everlasting covenant with them so they might be the firstfruits of a renewed humanity, who would mediate blessing and restoration to all the nations of the world."

The Association of Messianic Congregations -

From (

"We believe Israel is God's special people, distinct from the body of Messiah, chosen by Him to be a holy nation and a kingdom of priests. The election of Israel is irrevocable. Jewish believers in Yeshua have a unique twofold identity. They are the spiritual remnant of physical Israel and at the same time are part of the body of Messiah. We believe the Abrahamic Covenant is an irrevocable, unconditional covenant God made with Jewish people. This covenant provides title to the land of Israel for the Jewish people and promises a descendant (the Messiah) who would come to redeem Israel and bless the entire world. The spiritual blessings of the Abrahamic Covenant overflow to all the nations. God will ultimately fulfill every aspect of the covenant in the Messianic Kingdom, both physical and spiritual. We believe that Israel's eternal covenant relationship with God does not grant atonement to individual Jewish people. Therefore, it is the believer's privilege and duty to tell the Good News of Messiah Yeshua to the Jewish people. (Genesis 12:1-3, 15:1-21, 17:1-21; Romans 11:1-29;  Galatians 3:14-17)"

In addition, the Association of Messianic Congregations has made the following statement with regards to Two House / Ephraimite doctrine on their "Believe" page:

"We have been asked our position regarding the new/old Two House/Ephraimite doctrine and the related speculation about the 10 Northern Tribes of Israel supposedly getting 'lost' and then showing up in the USA.

At both recent AMC Conferences our President Steve Shermett presented seminars on these new twists on old false doctrines. Here is our Editor's quick summary of what was presented:

1. The Ten Northern Tribes were taken captive by Assyria. After a hundred years Babylon defeated Judah with it's 2 Tribes and defeated Assyria and took all their captives, including the Hebrews of the Ten Tribes. So there was a reunion of sorts, albeit in captivity, of all the 12 Tribes. After more years, Persia defeated Babylon and guess what they did? They let everyone go home, including the members of all 12 Tribes, together. The New Testament records members of several of the Northern Tribes back in Israel in the First Century. So, they weren't "lost", they were reunited with the rest of the Hebrew people, and the myth of "10 Lost Tribes" is the product of poor Bible exegesis or an intentional effort to invent a scenario that names some group or church as descendants of a tribe.

2. Scripture uses the terms Jewish and Israel interchangeably, trying to invent some difference between the terms is really "reading back" into the Scriptures a recent false teaching. A good example of the interchangeability is Romans 11:1, where Rabbi Sh'aul (known generally as Paul) calls himself an "Israelite" of "the Tribe of Benjamin". Of course, Benjamin was part of Judah.

3. Gentile Believers in Messiah Yeshua are beloved of God and do not need to invent, imagine or make up a false Jewish/Hebrew/Israel lineage to be top-ranked "players" in the family of God. God loves Gentiles who love the Messiah. Selah."

International Alliance of Messianic Congregations and Synagogues -


"Messianic Judaism

We recognize that Jewish people (physical descendants of Abraham through Isaac and Jacob, whether through the mother's or the father's blood-line) who place their faith in Israel's Messiah, Yeshua, continue to be Jewish according to the Scriptures (Rom. 2:28-29). Gentiles who place their faith in Yeshua, are "grafted into" the Jewish olive tree of faith (Rom. 11:17-25) becoming spiritual sons and daughters of Abraham (Gal. 3:28-29). "

"We acknowledge that the New Covenant body of believers is composed of both Jews and Gentiles who have received Yeshua the Messiah as the Promised Redeemer. The "middle wall of partition" has been broken down and now we worship the God of Israel together (I Cor. 12:13; Eph. 2:13-14)."

Messianic Jewish Alliance of America -

"Should Jews really attempt to assimilate into churches and forego their Jewish identity when they choose to put their faith in the Jewish Messiah? Messianic Judaism answers, “No!” As Yeshua Himself embraced His Jewishness, Messianic Jews seek to embrace theirs, by meeting in congregational communities with other Jewish believers and by maintaining a Biblically Jewish expression of their faith." 


Soujourner Ministries -

"Although there is now no distinction between Jews and Gentiles with regard to salvation and access to God (Gal 3:28), there are distinctions between Jewish believers and Gentile believers. Unity in Christ does not absolve the diversity of the components God chose to incorporate into His church. In other words, “oneness” does not necessarily entail “sameness.” "

Jews for Jesus -

"Regardless of which definition someone chooses, each describes a (1) community of ethnically Jewish people who (2) have embraced Jesus and (3) continue to self-identify as Jews, constructing like communities, and integrating Jewish practice with faith in Jesus."

Midwest Messianic Center -

Excerpt from the "Beliefs" page:

"We believe that God chose the Jewish people and that He entered into a special covenant relationship with them that was based upon His sovereign choice. As such, they are unique among the nations of the earth, in that they are specially loved and known by God. This is not to suggest that God does not also love the world. We believe that Israel and the church are two distinct and separate entities. The church being made up of Jewish people and Gentiles, forming one body in which Messiah Jesus is the head. Both have their own distinct plan that is laid out in the Word of God. We believe that God is not finished with ethnic Israel and that He has a plan for them that still awaits fulfillment."

Ariel Ministries -

From the Doctrinal Statement page:

"We believe that God called a people to Himself who are the physical descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; that Israel is the Wife of Jehovah, unfaithful in the past, divorced in the present, and to be reunited in the future; that God has made four unconditional covenants with this elect nation that have remained unfulfilled; that God intends to fulfill all His promises to Israel in a literal way just as His warnings and judgments were fulfilled in a literal way; that in Israel's history of unbelief there has always been a believing remnant according to the election of grace; that there will be a national regeneration of Israel at which time all of the provisions of the unconditional covenants will be fulfilled, including the seed, land, and blessing aspects."

Tree of Life Bible Version -

The Tree of Life Bible version is a Messianic believers translation of the Bible. Excerpts rom the About Us Page:

"We believe the Jewish people, those who are descendats of Abraham through Isaac through blood lines of birth mothers or fathers, who place their faith in Israel's Messiah Yeshua, have not disowned or separated themselves from their race and Judaic heritage, but remain sons and daughters of Israel. Gentiles who place their faith in Israel's Messiah Yeshua are spiritually sons and daughers of Abraham and remain Gentiles. (Genesis 15:6; Galatians 3:28-29; Romans 2:28-29)"

The Jewish Voice -

"Jewish people are descendants of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob were the patriarchs of Israel, and the Jewish people are their identifiable progeny. Historically, Jewish people have not acknowledged Jesus (Yeshua) as the Messiah promised to Israel.

Christians are typically non-Jews who have responded to Yeshua in faith to experience spiritual rebirth and reconciliation to God.

Jewish people who acknowledge Yeshua as the promised Messiah are generally known as Messianic Jews."

Also under: The "Lost Tribes"

"Israel didn’t heed any of the warnings to return to God given her by the prophets, and in 722 B.C., Assyria conquered the Northern Kingdom of Israel, taking captive and deporting the members of the ten tribes. These tribes dispersed and became absorbed into the surrounding pagan cultures – for the most part. There was a small, nearly-invisible remnant that continued to maintain a form of Jewish identity, many of whom immigrated south into the kingdom of Judah."

Also under: "Further Scattering of Lost Tribes"

"These “Lost Tribes of Israel” – spread throughout the earth and outwardly oppressed by the societies to which their ancestors dispersed – have maintained their Jewish identity against all odds. Historical Jewish customs, religious practices, and their own claims point to their Jewish roots. Modern DNA testing has confirmed that these pockets of dispersed people are indeed Jews."

David Barron's Works

David Barron was a Messianic Jew who wrote extensively about Anglo Israelism, which was equivalent in theology to the modern day Hebrew Roots Movement. Both Anglo Israelism and Hebrew Roots Movement teach that the 10 northern tribes of Israel were absorbed and assimilated into the surrounding nations. David proves conclusively that this is not the case, and his arguments are just as valid today with respect to the Hebrew Roots Movement as they were then with Anglo Israelism.

The Ten Lost Tribes Myth: David Baron's Classic Work

The History of the Ten "Lost" Tribes: Anglo Israelism Examined by David Barron

Geri Ungurean

Geri is a Messianic Jew who writes for the Rapture Ready website, among others.

Hebrew Roots: A Different Gospel

Jewish Awareness Ministries

"11. Israel

We believe that God called a people to Himself who are the physical descendants of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (the Jewish people); that God has made four unconditional covenants (Abrahamic, Land, Davidic, and New) with this elect nation that remain unfulfilled; that God intends to fulfill all His promises to Israel in a literal way just as His warnings and judgments were fulfilled in a literal way; that in Israel’s history of unbelief there has always been a believing remnant according to the election of grace; that there will be a national regeneration of Israel at which time all of the provisions of the unconditional covenants will be fulfilled, including the seed, land, and blessing aspects. We believe that Israel is distinct from the church and central to God’s plan, past, present, and future. (Gen. 12:1-3, Deut. 30:1-10, Psalm 89, Psalm 105:6-20, Jer. 31:31-34, Rom. 11)"

Rabbi Michael Rudolph

Rabbi Michael Rudolph's credentials are listed here...

Michael Rudolph is associated with Messianic Life Institute, A Messianic Jewish School for Ministry and Theology

His article: "Not All Messianic Believers are Jews"

Reconnecting Ministries -

"We do not believe G-d wants Gentiles to become like Jews, or for Jews to become like Gentiles. Rather we bless both unique expressions of faith into a re-perfected unity in The One New Man, as the Church was originally structured. For G-ds love and liberty to flow freely and for both Jewish and Gentile believers to bless and strengthen one another."

Rabbi David Chernoff

"What Is Messianic Judaism?"

See "What Is The Relationship Of Gentile Christians To The Laws Of The Torah?"

"According to the binding, Holy Spirit-inspired decision issued by the Emissaries and Elders, apart from saving faith in Messiah Yeshua, only four essential practices are necessary for Gentile Christians: abstaining from food dirtied by idolatry, from sexual immorality, from eating blood and from the meat of animals that have been strangled (see Acts 15, especially verses 19-20, 28-29). In addition to these Four Essentials, obedience to the Moral Law (for example, not stealing, not murdering, not committing adultery and not bearing false witness) is required. The Creator has written these moral laws on everyone’s heart (see Romans 2:14-15). Apart from these Four Essential Practices and the Moral Law, everything else – including the Sabbath, holidays and dietary laws – is to be regarded as non-essential, and comes under the area of Christian freedom and liberty."

Messianic Jewish Position on One Law One People

The following list represents individual Messianic Jewish ministries and their statements regarding One Law One People, aka Torah Observance or Keeping the Law of Moses.

Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations -

From (

"The Torah does not have the same role for Messianic communities from the nations, though it does provide spiritual nourishment as a witness to the Messiah."

The Association of Messianic Congregations -

"We believe the Law of Moses as a rule of life has been fulfilled in the Messiah and therefore believers are no longer under its' obligation or condemnation. While the Law of Moses is no longer obligatory for believers, the Law has much to teach us regarding a joyfully Jewish way of life. Both Jewish and non-Jewish believers have the freedom in Messiah to maintain any aspects of the Law of Moses which do not violate the entirety of the rest of scripture. (Act_21:24-26; Rom_6:14;8:2;10:4;14:1-23; 1Co_9:20; 2Co_3:1-11; Gal_3:3,3:10-13;6:2; Eph_2:14)"

Messianic Jewish Alliance of America -

"One of the first debates these early disciples faced seems ironic to us now: Could non-Jews participate in the community of Yeshua’s followers without becoming Jews? At the very birth of Judaism, God had told Abraham that He would bless all nations of the earth through Abraham’s offspring (Genesis 12.3). Accordingly, the apostolic council in Acts 15 decided that non-Jews could follow Yeshua without converting to Judaism."

Jews for Jesus -

About Torah Observance

This page is an entire paper presenting a response to Torah Observant groups. Excerpt:

"To be sure, the exact nature and function of the Law of Moses are debated among Christians, but with an understanding that the Church, including both Jewish and Gentile members, is not mandated to keep the entire Law of Moses. The following, then, is not intended as a final word by any means (as if it were possible in just a few paragraphs!), but is meant to give food for thought, and hopefully pause to those who would rush into attempting to observe the Law of Moses today."

Looking at the Law

"The Law itself is not bad; it is sin, the misuse of the Law, and the way that human traditions can end up supplanting the Law, that are bad. The principles of the Law, especially the Ten Commandments, have become the bedrock of Western civilization and of the Church itself—even those churches that portray the Law negatively.

Having said this, the Christian Church has universally recognized that the Law of Moses is not meant to be kept as a body of law by Christians today. The Law of Moses was part of a covenant that God made with Israel at a particular time and in a particular place. With the coming of Christ, the New Covenant prophesied by Jeremiah has come into effect and we are no longer under the Old Covenant."


Midwest Messianic Center -

Excerpts from the "What do Jewish People Believe" page:

B. The Law was given to the people of Israel.

Rom. 9:3-4 – For I could wish that I myself were accursed, from Christ for the sake of my brethren, my kinsmen according to the flesh, who are Israelites, to whom belongs the adoption as sons and the glory and the covenants and the giving of the Law and the service and the promises

See Deut. 4:7-8, Ps. 147:19-20. It is important to remember this. Binding the Mosaic Law upon the Church has caused a multitude of confusion and false teaching within the Body of Christ.

I. The Law was designed to lead one to Jesus the Messiah.

Gal. 3:24-25 – Therefore the Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ, that we may be justified by faith. But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor.

Paul explains that the Law was a “tutor.” In ancient cultures a tutor was usually a slave who was responsible for watching over a child. He would take them to and from school and check their behavior. They would seek to teach the child right from wrong. In Paul’s analogy, the Law did that. It taught the Jewish people about themselves. When the Law is properly used, it will lead a person to the Messiah Jesus. He will understand that his standing before God is not what it needs to be. He will understand that he needs a Savior and that the Law cannot save. The Law is like a mirror. It will show the dirt on someone’s face, but it doesn’t have the power to clean it off. It showed the person that they needed to be justified by faith. Once that took place, they were no longer under the “tutor.” As believers today, we’re not under the Law. We can learn much from it, but it cannot save anyone.

Ariel Ministries -

From the Q&A Page:


Q: What does the Bible teach about the eating of meat? (This also state that the Law ended).

A: The Bible teaches that in the present age all meats are clean for eating purposes. From Adam until Noah, man was purely vegetarian. At the time of Noah (Genesis 9:3) all meats were allowed to be eaten and there were no limitations whatsoever. In fact, Noah was told that anything that moves could be eaten. That never changed for the Gentiles but, with Moses, the Jews were forbidden to eat certain types of meat. While the Mosaic Law was in force, certain meats were forbidden and others were permissible. However, with Messiah’s death the Law came to an end and the Bible teaches that all meats are now clean.

Chosen People Ministries -

From Articles:

"The writer of Hebrews concludes by stating the New Covenant made the Mosaic covenant obsolete. The Greek word for “obsolete” is pa-lay-oh, which in the perfect tense means “old in the sense of uselessness and continues to be so.” The Mosaic covenant was never intended to produce justification apart from the sacrificial system, and it served as a means of pointing people to the coming Messiah (Galatians 3:24 [Open in Logos Bible Software (if available)] ). It was a covenant that was temple-dependent. The tearing of the temple’s veil at the moment of Messiah’s death, and the destruction of the temple in 70 AD, is alluded to when he writes, “But whatever is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to disappear.”

The Jewish Voice -

"Should Christians keep the food laws that were given to Jewish people?

"Peter’s vision in Acts 10 clearly demonstrated God’s love for all varieties of human beings and His intention to bring Messianic redemption to those of every nation. Nowhere in Scripture are non-Jews expected to strictly adhere to the ever-evolving rabbinic dietary customs. At the same time, we must admit that Peter’s vision was not a certification for the eating of biblically unclean foods by Jewish people."


"The seventh day, the Shabbat, is from sundown Friday night to sundown Saturday night. Many Christians follow the practice of resting on the first day of the week, Sunday, which is the traditional Christian day to especially honor the day of Yeshua’s resurrection. Christians are under no obligation to keep the Torah prescription given to national Israel to worship on the Jewish Shabbat but do well to rest one day a week whether Saturday or Sunday."

Jewish Awareness Ministries

"7. The Christian Life

We believe that the Christian life should be characterized by joy, peace, and obedience to the Lord Jesus Christ. The believer is free to be guided by the Holy Spirit and the Word of God, and is not bound by the Old Testament (Mosaic) legal code. This liberty in Christ is never to be used as an excuse for sin. The high calling of God in Christ teaches us that we should deny ungodliness and worldly desires and should live sensible, righteous, and Godly lives."

Reconnecting Ministries -

"Blessing Israel into Her Identity

We believe that when a Jewish person comes to faith in Yeshua/Jesus they should not let go of their heritage (Romans 11:17,18,24), but indeed is brought into a new intimacy with the G-d of Abraham by the power of the Holy Spirit. We fully embrace that heritage as being the very roots of our faith, without the legalistic rituals and structure characterized by the Mosaic Covenant. Yeshua/Jesus has made a new and living way for both Jew and Gentile to experience the very presence of G-d within the uniqueness of their separate roles to glorify G-d upon the earth."


This article provides a description of issues presented by the Hebrew Roots Movement and their Two House theology. I endeavored to present the Messianic Jewish view of this movement and the theology as pertains to the identity of Israel and the current relevance of the Law of Moss as honestly as possible. As far as I can tell, Messianic Jews are in complete agreement in the refutation of Hebrew Roots Movement and Two House theology.

The correct understanding of the identity of Israel is paramount in avoiding the drift into false teaching. Get Israel wrong, and you get much of Scripture wrong. Israel consists of the ethic descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob from all twelve tribes, and they do exist today. This fact alone completely renders Hebrew Roots Movement and their Two House theology a complete shambles. If Two House adherents claim to be the "true Jews" and the "Israel of God", then who are the Messianic Jews who claim THEY are the "true Jews" and "Israel of God"? Both can't be true.

Additional References

Spirit and Truth

Are Gentile Believers Part of Israel?

Are the Ten Tribes Lost?

Lehigh University - Glenn Blank

"Is the Church Ephraim"

Hebrew for Christians - John Parsons

Two House Theology - Are Christians the "Lost Tribes" of Israel by John J. Parsons

Moriel Ministries - Perry Trotter

A Brief Assessment of Two House Theology by Perry Trotter

Growing Joyfully In Grace

This entire website is dedicated to exposing HRM theologies, and has many great articles:

Answers in Genesis

Dangers of the Hebrew Roots Movement

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