Saturday, July 6, 2024

The Regeneration and Restoration of Israel

 By Stan Feldsine -


The history and future of national Israel been clearly revealed by historians and prophets. God gave a promise to Israel that they would become "a great nation" (Gen 12:2), and would possess land (Jos 1:4) for the great nation to live in (Deu 30:5). Those promises have never been fully realized, as Israel has struggled to possess portions of the promised land from the time of Joshua until the Babylonian Captivity. During the time of the captivity Israel lost possession of the land for 70 years. Following the captivity, Israel returned to the land and continued their possession of it until 70AD at which time the Roman army destroyed Jerusalem and the temple, and the Jews were dispersed to the nations. It would be nearly 1900 years before Israel once again was back in their land in May of 1948.

This article will provide the basis for national Israel's possession of the land in Deu 29:1 to Deu 30:10. It will show the prophetic support for Israel's present day gathering in their land in preparation for judgment during the Tribulation period (Eze 20:34), and it will show how the Tribulation judgments result in Israel's repentance, cry out to Messiah, and their regeneration (Hos 5:15, Hos 6:1-3). This results in the final and permanent regathering in their land in preparation for the Millennial Kingdom (Amos 9:15).

The Land Covenant as the Basis for the Restoration

The foundation for the restoration of national Israel is the Land Covenant, (sometimes called the Covenant at Moab or the Palestinian Covenant) described in Deu 29:1 to Deu 30:20. This passage describes the terms of the covenant, and prophecy detailing Israel's failure to retain possession of their land and their eventual permanent restoration to the land.

The Land Covenant is Distinct From the Mosaic Covenant

The Land Covenant was made in Moab as an everlasting covenant, the Mosaic Covenant was made at Horeb as a conditional covenant. The Land Covenant is an additional covenant, building on the Abrahamic covenant, but separate from the Mosaic covenant.

Deu 29:1 These are the terms of the covenant the LORD commanded Moses to make with the Israelites in Moab, in addition to the covenant he had made with them at Horeb.

God told the Israelites that He was making this Land covenant "today" with those presently in attendance and their posterity. The Mosaic Covenant was temporal.

Deu 29:12-15 You are standing here in order to enter into a covenant with the LORD your God, a covenant the LORD is making with you this day and sealing with an oath, (13) to confirm you this day as his people, that he may be your God as he promised you and as he swore to your fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. I am making this covenant, with its oath, not only with you (15) who are standing here with us today in the presence of the LORD our God but also with those who are not here today.

The Land Covenant is an Everlasting Covenant

In order for this covenant to be fulfilled, the Israelites are to follow the terms of this covenant. As an everlasting covenant, the Israelites would never loose ownership of the land, however, their prosperity in the land was conditional upon their following the terms of the covenant.

Deu 29:9 Carefully follow the terms of this covenant, so that you may prosper in everything you do.

The Land Covenant Terms Given

The terms of the covenant defined the conditions under which Israel would be allowed to live in the land they were given. Accordingly, they would be judged for their indiscretions, and loose the right to live in the land through rebellion and sin, but the title deed of ownership to the land would not be revoked even as disaster comes upon the land and curses on the Israelites.

Deu 29:18-20 Make sure there is no man or woman, clan or tribe among you today whose heart turns away from the LORD our God to go and worship the gods of those nations; make sure there is no root among you that produces such bitter poison. (19) When such a person hears the words of this oath and they invoke a blessing on themselves, thinking, "I will be safe, even though I persist in going my own way," they will bring disaster on the watered land as well as the dry. (20) The LORD will never be willing to forgive them; his wrath and zeal will burn against them. All the curses written in this book will fall on them, and the LORD will blot out their names from under heaven.

Prophecy of Disobedience

Moses then records the inevitable response of Israel to this covenant. They would abandon it, and they would worship other gods, thus forfeiting the right to live in their land. This would result in their dispersion among the nations.

Deu 29:23-26 The whole land will be a burning waste of salt and sulfur--nothing planted, nothing sprouting, no vegetation growing on it. It will be like the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, Admah and Zeboyim, which the LORD overthrew in fierce anger. (24) All the nations will ask: "Why has the LORD done this to this land? Why this fierce, burning anger?" (25) And the answer will be: "It is because this people abandoned the covenant of the LORD, the God of their ancestors, the covenant he made with them when he brought them out of Egypt. (26) They went off and worshiped other gods and bowed down to them, gods they did not know, gods he had not given them.

The Dispersion From the Land is Temporary

In spite of their disobedience and dispersion to the nations, God provides a path home for the Israelites. When they and their children return to the Lord and obey Him with all their hearts, then God will restore their fortunes and regather them from the nations He had scattered them to and bring them back to the land.

This shows the unconditional nature of the Land Covenant. When Israel and her children return to Almighty God and obey Him, then the Lord will restore their fortunes and regather them from the nations restoring their possession of the land. This shows that this covenant will be fulfilled during the Messianic Kingdom following the Tribulation.

Deu 30:1-6 When all these blessings and curses I have set before you come on you and you take them to heart wherever the LORD your God disperses you among the nations, (2) and when you and your children return to the LORD your God and obey him with all your heart and with all your soul according to everything I command you today, (3) then the LORD your God will restore your fortunes and have compassion on you and gather you again from all the nations where he scattered you. (4) Even if you have been banished to the most distant land under the heavens, from there the LORD your God will gather you and bring you back. (5) He will bring you to the land that belonged to your ancestors, and you will take possession of it. He will make you more prosperous and numerous than your ancestors. (6) The LORD your God will circumcise your hearts and the hearts of your descendants, so that you may love him with all your heart and with all your soul, and live.

An Initial Restoration of Ethnic Israel In Unbelief


As history reveals, Israel did indeed rebel against the Lord as prophesied, and were dispersed among the nations, where they remain to this day. Yet, today we see a regathering happening in the land of Israel. Israel was once again declared a nation on May 14, 1948, and Jewish descendants are returning to the land of Israel today, albeit in a state of unbelief and continued rejection of their Messiah. See:

Aliyah: Make it Home


The Prophets foresaw the days in which Israel would be restored to their land, and that restoration will take place in two stages.

The first stage is a return to the land in unbelief, meaning they are coming back to the land of Israel, but they still do not believe in their Messiah, Jesus. This regathering will take place before the Tribulation, and is being carried out in preparation for the Tribulation judgment. We are seeing the first stage take place today.

The second stage of the regathering to the land of Israel will be among regenerated Israelites who have accepted their Messiah Jesus at the end of the Tribulation period. This regathering is in preparation for the Millennial Kingdom. This we will see in the future.

The First and Second Regatherings Compared

Isaiah helps us to distinguish between the two regatherings, first in unbelief, then later in belief.

While Isa 11:11-12 is speaking of a "second time" that He will reach out to recover Israel, the question is what is the "first" time? Some believe that the first restoration was the return of the Israelites from Babylon following the Babylonian Captivity. However, the return from Babylon cannot be in view here because that regathering was not international in scope, I.E. "he will assemble the scattered people of Judah from the four quarters of the earth". The return from Babylon was localized from Babylon itself, not the four quarters of the earth.

Isa 11:11-12 In that day the Lord will reach out his hand a second time to reclaim the surviving remnant of his people from Assyria, from Lower Egypt, from Upper Egypt, from Cush, from Elam, from Babylonia, from Hamath and from the islands of the Mediterranean. (12) He will raise a banner for the nations and gather the exiles of Israel; he will assemble the scattered people of Judah from the four quarters of the earth.

So the "first" regathering in the context of Isaiah 11 is the one in preparation for the tribulation judgments, and the "second" regathering is in belief following the Tribulation in preparation for the Millennial Kingdom. Although this is not explicitly stated in Isa 11:11-12, Zephaniah makes this clear as he prophesies regarding the "first" regathering to wrath. Zephaniah is seeing a shameful nation being gathered "before the day of the Lord's wrath comes upon you", or before the Tribulation.

Zep 2:1-2 Gather together, gather yourselves together, you shameful nation, (2) before the decree takes effect and that day passes like windblown chaff, before the LORD's fierce anger comes upon you, before the day of the LORD's wrath comes upon you.

Scriptural Support for the First Regathering in Unbelief

Evidence for a regathered state of Israel prior to the Tribulation judgments is seen in Daniel's prophecy of the 70 weeks. The Antichrist kicks off the 70th week by confirming a 7 year covenant with Israel. In order for the Antichrist to make an agreement with Israel, Israel has to exist as a political entity. That this political entity exists shows that they are being regathered, and that they are still in unbelief at the beginning of the Tribulation. A regenerated Israel would not be signing a covenant with the Antichrist.

Dan 9:27 He will confirm a covenant with many for one 'seven.' In the middle of the 'seven' he will put an end to sacrifice and offering. And at the temple he will set up an abomination that causes desolation, until the end that is decreed is poured out on him."

Ezekiel also has the first restoration in unbelief in view in Eze 20:33-38. The Israelites are said to be brought back from the nations, to experience outpoured wrath and face judgment. This speaks of the regathering going on today, as Israel today has still not accepted their Messiah, Jesus, and the Tribulation is still yet future. Ezekiel is prophesying about the Tribulation in this passage.

Eze 20:33-38 As surely as I live, declares the Sovereign LORD, I will reign over you with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm and with outpoured wrath. (34) I will bring you from the nations and gather you from the countries where you have been scattered--with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm and with outpoured wrath. (35) I will bring you into the wilderness of the nations and there, face to face, I will execute judgment upon you. (36) As I judged your ancestors in the wilderness of the land of Egypt, so I will judge you, declares the Sovereign LORD. (37) I will take note of you as you pass under my rod, and I will bring you into the bond of the covenant. (38) I will purge you of those who revolt and rebel against me. Although I will bring them out of the land where they are living, yet they will not enter the land of Israel. Then you will know that I am the LORD.

Ezekiel also refers to the first regathering in unbelief in Eze 22:17-22. The metaphor here of dross and metals being gathered into a furnace speaks of the Tribulation judgments that are to come upon a regathered people who still reject their Messiah Jesus. Israel, during the Tribulation will experience the Lord's wrath poured out on them.

Eze 22:17-22 Then the word of the LORD came to me: (18) "Son of man, the people of Israel have become dross to me; all of them are the copper, tin, iron and lead left inside a furnace. They are but the dross of silver. (19) Therefore this is what the Sovereign LORD says: 'Because you have all become dross, I will gather you into Jerusalem. (20) As silver, copper, iron, lead and tin are gathered into a furnace to be melted with a fiery blast, so will I gather you in my anger and my wrath and put you inside the city and melt you. (21) I will gather you and I will blow on you with my fiery wrath, and you will be melted inside her. (22) As silver is melted in a furnace, so you will be melted inside her, and you will know that I the LORD have poured out my wrath on you.'"

Ezekiel continues this theme in Eze 36:22-24 by instructing Israel that God is not bringing about Tribulation judgment and wrath for their sake, but for the sake of His name which they have profaned. He is going to do this and He is regathering the people from the nations they had been sent in preparation for it.

Eze 36:22-24 "Therefore say to the Israelites, 'This is what the Sovereign LORD says: It is not for your sake, people of Israel, that I am going to do these things, but for the sake of my holy name, which you have profaned among the nations where you have gone. (23) I will show the holiness of my great name, which has been profaned among the nations, the name you have profaned among them. Then the nations will know that I am the LORD, declares the Sovereign LORD, when I am proved holy through you before their eyes. (24) "'For I will take you out of the nations; I will gather you from all the countries and bring you back into your own land.

Israel's Repentance


The second regathering of Israel occurs in preparation for the Millennial Kingdom. The Tribulation judgment has passed, and following the Tribulation judgments, there are two things that Israel must do to be restored in their land.

First, they must repent of their national sin, and the sins of their ancestors, specifically the sin of rejecting their Messiah. Second, they must cry out to Messiah for His return.

Israel Must Cry Out To Messiah

Matthew, Isaiah, Joel and Zechariah all connect Israel's regeneration to their crying out to Messiah for His return. Israel will see their Messiah once again when they say "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord".

Mat 23:37-39 "Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, and you were not willing. (38) Look, your house is left to you desolate. (39) For I tell you, you will not see me again until you say, 'Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord.'"

Matthew was referring to the worship of Jesus during His Triumphal Entry. The people cried out "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!", and "Hosanna in the highest heaven!"

Mat 21:9 The crowds that went ahead of him and those that followed shouted, "Hosanna to the Son of David!" "Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!" "Hosanna in the highest heaven!"

The people who made this cry were quoting from Psa 118:26. This was significant because the Psalmist and his readers understood this to be praise in the worship of Almighty God. The Israelites crying out recognized Jesus as Messiah. A few days later Jesus was crucified, and Israel must once again cry out that Jesus is Messiah and is God as implied by the Psalm.

Psa 118:26 Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD. From the house of the LORD we bless you.

Zechariah and Joel also see Israel coming to a place of crying out in mourning and sorrow as they look at the one they pierced. Regeneration is necessarily attached to the acceptance of the Messiah. Israel's mourning and bitter grief over the realization that their ancestors killed their Messiah is associated with the "pouring out ... a spirit of grace and supplication".

Zec 12:10, Zec 13:1, Joel 2:28-29, Joel 2:32 "And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and supplication. They will look on me, the one they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son.

"On that day a fountain will be opened to the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, to cleanse them from sin and impurity.

"And afterward, I will pour out my Spirit on all people. Your sons and daughters will prophesy, your old men will dream dreams, your young men will see visions. (29) Even on my servants, both men and women, I will pour out my Spirit in those days. (32) And everyone who calls on the name of the LORD will be saved; for on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there will be deliverance, as the LORD has said, even among the survivors whom the LORD calls.

In this passage in Zechariah we see the Israelites in the midst of the Tribulation period calling on God's name and God answering them. Two thirds of Israel will perish in the Tribulation, and the last one third will be refined and regenerated.

Zec 13:7-9 "Awake, sword, against my shepherd, against the man who is close to me!" declares the LORD Almighty. "Strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered, and I will turn my hand against the little ones. (8) In the whole land," declares the LORD, "two-thirds will be struck down and perish; yet one-third will be left in it. (9) This third I will put into the fire; I will refine them like silver and test them like gold. They will call on my name and I will answer them; I will say, 'They are my people,' and they will say, 'The LORD is our God.'"

Isaiah speaks about this Tribulation period and Israel's suffering, but in the midst of this they cry out to Messiah to rescue them from the Tribulation troubles.

Isa 64:1-2, Isa 64:12 Oh, that you would rend the heavens and come down, that the mountains would tremble before you! (2) As when fire sets twigs ablaze and causes water to boil, come down to make your name known to your enemies and cause the nations to quake before you! (12) After all this, LORD, will you hold yourself back? Will you keep silent and punish us beyond measure?

Israel Must Repent of Her Sin

In Deu 30:1-6 we see the contrasting situations that Israel finds itself in. In unbelief, they are facing judgment and outpoured wrath, but in belief they are facing restoration of fortunes, possession of the land and circumcision of heart, which is regeneration. The Tribulation judgments have passed, and now we are preparing for the Millennial Kingdom.

In the passages that follow we see the need for Israel to repent of sin, and it's connection to regeneration and the blessings of the Millennial Kingdom. Israel must come to a place of humility and turn to Messiah before they are able to take possession of the land again.

Lev 26:40-42 "'But if they will confess their sins and the sins of their ancestors--their unfaithfulness and their hostility toward me, (41) which made me hostile toward them so that I sent them into the land of their enemies--then when their uncircumcised hearts are humbled and they pay for their sin, (42) I will remember my covenant with Jacob and my covenant with Isaac and my covenant with Abraham, and I will remember the land.

Jeremiah speaks of the promise to Israel that He "will give you shepherds after my own heart, who will lead you with knowledge and understanding". Israel need only acknowledge their guilt and rebellion and return to Him. Looking towards the end of the Tribulation, Jeremiah sees Israel calling Jerusalem "the throne of God" and no longer following the stubbornness of their evil hearts.

Jer 3:11-18 The LORD said to me, "Faithless Israel is more righteous than unfaithful Judah. (12) Go, proclaim this message toward the north: "'Return, faithless Israel,' declares the LORD, 'I will frown on you no longer, for I am faithful,' declares the LORD, 'I will not be angry forever. (13) Only acknowledge your guilt-- you have rebelled against the LORD your God, you have scattered your favors to foreign gods under every spreading tree, and have not obeyed me,'" declares the LORD. (14) "Return, faithless people," declares the LORD, "for I am your husband. I will choose you--one from a town and two from a clan--and bring you to Zion. (15) Then I will give you shepherds after my own heart, who will lead you with knowledge and understanding. (16) In those days, when your numbers have increased greatly in the land," declares the LORD, "people will no longer say, 'The ark of the covenant of the LORD.' It will never enter their minds or be remembered; it will not be missed, nor will another one be made. (17) At that time they will call Jerusalem The Throne of the LORD, and all nations will gather in Jerusalem to honor the name of the LORD. No longer will they follow the stubbornness of their evil hearts. (18) In those days the people of Judah will join the people of Israel, and together they will come from a northern land to the land I gave your ancestors as an inheritance.

Israel's Regeneration


When national Israel finally comes to a place of repentance and cries out to Messiah for Him to come, they will be regenerated. Regeneration means that all Israel will have the Holy Spirit poured out on them in fulfillment of Joel 2:28-29 which will enable them to receive the spiritual blessings of the Holy Spirit in transformation (Rom 12:2) and renewal (Eph 4:23) similar to that of the church. When the church received the indwelling Holy Spirit, Peter said in Act 2:17-18 that this was what was spoken of in Joel. But the entire prophecy in Joel will not be fulfilled (cf Joel 2:30-32) until national Israel's repentance and crying out near the end of the Tribulation.

Prophecies of Regeneration

In this passage from Hosea, we hear that God will leave Israel to her misery, being torn to pieces in the Tribulation, followed by the call from the Jewish leaders to return to God and acknowledge Him. Here we see the national leadership of Israel that once led the people in the rejection of Messiah now come to realize why the Tribulation has come upon them and they begin turning the people to Messiah Jesus.

According to this prophecy, the revival and restoration of Israel will take place in just three days.

Hos 5:15, Hos 6:1-3 (5:15) Then I will return to my lair until they have borne their guilt and seek my face-- in their misery they will earnestly seek me." (6:1) "Come, let us return to the LORD. He has torn us to pieces but he will heal us; he has injured us but he will bind up our wounds. (2) After two days he will revive us; on the third day he will restore us, that we may live in his presence. (3) Let us acknowledge the LORD; let us press on to acknowledge him. As surely as the sun rises, he will appear; he will come to us like the winter rains, like the spring rains that water the earth."

The fulfillment of the prophesy of Hosea is detailed in Rom 11:25-32. Indeed, when the religious leaders repent and turn from rejection to acceptance of Messiah, they will lead the nation of Israel in national confession, and national confession will result in national regeneration.

Paul indicates that Israel has experienced a partial "hardening of heart" as seen currently in their unbelief. However, the hardening is partial as evidenced by the existence of Jewish believers in Messiah today.

Paul explains the hardening of heart on the part of Israel. The hardening of heart is temporary, as it only lasts "until the full number of Gentiles come in". Paul explains that this partial hardening of Israel is to provide God with a people from among the Gentiles called out for His name. It is a result of Israel's hardening and the fulfillment of the coming in of the called out Gentiles that leads to all Israel being saved.

When the full number of called out Gentiles is reached, the Rapture occurs, then God will turn His attention back to Israel in the Tribulation. Following the Tribulation period which results in Israel calling out to Messiah Jesus and repenting of their sin, all Israel will be saved. All Israel being saved means that on a national basis Israel repents of her sin. They will cry out to Messiah, and be regenerated.

When national Israel cries out to Messiah Jesus and repents for their sin, Messiah will "turn the godlessness away from Jacob", and "take away their sin" bringing regeneration. All Israel being saved is speaking of those Jews who will at that time be alive in national Israel. They will be led by their repentant leaders into repentance and acceptance of Messiah as Savior.

Rom 11:25-32 I do not want you to be ignorant of this mystery, brothers and sisters, so that you may not be conceited: Israel has experienced a hardening in part until the full number of the Gentiles has come in, (26) and in this way all Israel will be saved. As it is written: "The deliverer will come from Zion; he will turn godlessness away from Jacob. (27) And this is my covenant with them when I take away their sins." (28) As far as the gospel is concerned, they are enemies for your sake; but as far as election is concerned, they are loved on account of the patriarchs, (29) for God's gifts and his call are irrevocable. (30) Just as you who were at one time disobedient to God have now received mercy as a result of their disobedience, (31) so they too have now become disobedient in order that they too may now receive mercy as a result of God's mercy to you. (32) For God has bound everyone over to disobedience so that he may have mercy on them all.

A Second Restoration of Ethnic Israel In Belief


In preparation for the Millennial Kingdom after Israel's regeneration at the end of the Tribulation, all Israel will be regathered again from the nations, this time in belief of their Messiah and in a regenerated state.

Israel's Restoration to the Land

Isaiah continues this theme of blessings to a regenerated Israel in Isa 27:12-13 indicating that those who were previously exiled to the nations will now worship the Lord in Jerusalem. In Isa 43:5-7 the Israelites are told not to be afraid, for He will be with them, clearly speaking of Millennial blessings, not Tribulation judgments.

Isa 27:12-13 In that day the LORD will thresh from the flowing Euphrates to the Wadi of Egypt, and you, Israel, will be gathered up one by one. (13) And in that day a great trumpet will sound. Those who were perishing in Assyria and those who were exiled in Egypt will come and worship the LORD on the holy mountain in Jerusalem.

Isa 43:5-7 Do not be afraid, for I am with you; I will bring your children from the east and gather you from the west. (6) I will say to the north, 'Give them up!' and to the south, 'Do not hold them back.' Bring my sons from afar and my daughters from the ends of the earth-- (7) everyone who is called by my name, whom I created for my glory, whom I formed and made."

Jeremiah provides his prophetic input. Jer 23:3-4 speaks of being regathered to blessing, as does Jer 31:7-8. This is a strong contrast to the gathering in unbelief where Israel looks forward to Tribulation and judgment.

Jer 23:3-4 "I myself will gather the remnant of my flock out of all the countries where I have driven them and will bring them back to their pasture, where they will be fruitful and increase in number. (4) I will place shepherds over them who will tend them, and they will no longer be afraid or terrified, nor will any be missing," declares the LORD.

Jer 31:7-8 This is what the LORD says: "Sing with joy for Jacob; shout for the foremost of the nations. Make your praises heard, and say, 'LORD, save your people, the remnant of Israel.' (8) See, I will bring them from the land of the north and gather them from the ends of the earth. Among them will be the blind and the lame, expectant mothers and women in labor; a great throng will return.

Ezekiel, who foresaw Israel's regathering to Tribulation and judgment also prophesied regarding Israel's regathering in belief. Eze 11:14-18 speaks of God giving Israel back their land, and Israel bringing the land back to righteousness during the Millennium.

Eze 11:14-18 The word of the LORD came to me: (15) "Son of man, the people of Jerusalem have said of your fellow exiles and all the other Israelites, 'They are far away from the LORD; this land was given to us as our possession.' (16) "Therefore say: 'This is what the Sovereign LORD says: Although I sent them far away among the nations and scattered them among the countries, yet for a little while I have been a sanctuary for them in the countries where they have gone.' (17) "Therefore say: 'This is what the Sovereign LORD says: I will gather you from the nations and bring you back from the countries where you have been scattered, and I will give you back the land of Israel again.' (18) "They will return to it and remove all its vile images and detestable idols.

In Eze 36:24-28 Ezekiel prophecies about Israel being blessed with regeneration during the second regathering in belief.

Eze 36:24-28 "'For I will take you out of the nations; I will gather you from all the countries and bring you back into your own land. (25) I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your impurities and from all your idols. (26) I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit in you; I will remove from you your heart of stone and give you a heart of flesh. (27) And I will put my Spirit in you and move you to follow my decrees and be careful to keep my laws. (28) Then you will live in the land I gave your ancestors; you will be my people, and I will be your God.

Hosea sees history in advance when he see dispersed Israel without national leaders. This changed in May of 1948, and Hosea sees a repentant Israel returning to God and His blessings.

Hos 3:4-5 For the Israelites will live many days without king or prince, without sacrifice or sacred stones, without ephod or household gods. (5) Afterward the Israelites will return and seek the LORD their God and David their king. They will come trembling to the LORD and to his blessings in the last days.

Amos foresees the rebuilding of the land of Israel in the Millennial Kingdom following the second regathering in belief. This is a final regathering as Amos states Israel is "never again be uprooted from the Land I have given them".

Amos 9:14-15 and I will bring my people Israel back from exile. "They will rebuild the ruined cities and live in them. They will plant vineyards and drink their wine; they will make gardens and eat their fruit. (15) I will plant Israel in their own land, never again to be uprooted from the land I have given them," says the LORD your God.

Zephaniah also foresees a regathering to belief and blessing as the Millennial Kingdom commences. God says that He will gather Israel, bring them home, and give them honor and praise, certainly a reference to Millennial blessings and not Tribulation judgments.

Zep 3:18-20 "I will remove from you all who mourn over the loss of your appointed festivals, which is a burden and reproach for you. (19) At that time I will deal with all who oppressed you. I will rescue the lame; I will gather the exiles. I will give them praise and honor in every land where they have suffered shame. (20) At that time I will gather you; at that time I will bring you home. I will give you honor and praise among all the peoples of the earth when I restore your fortunes before your very eyes," says the LORD.

Zechariah sees a returning Israel being strengthened and living securely in the Millennium.

Zec 10:8-12 I will signal for them and gather them in. Surely I will redeem them; they will be as numerous as before. (9) Though I scatter them among the peoples, yet in distant lands they will remember me. They and their children will survive, and they will return. (10) I will bring them back from Egypt and gather them from Assyria. I will bring them to Gilead and Lebanon, and there will not be room enough for them. (11) They will pass through the sea of trouble; the surging sea will be subdued and all the depths of the Nile will dry up. Assyria's pride will be brought down and Egypt's scepter will pass away. (12) I will strengthen them in the LORD and in his name they will live securely," declares the LORD.

Matthew recognized the timing of the regathering in belief of Israel would be at the end of the Tribulation at the coming of the Son of Man in preparation for the Millennial Kingdom.

Matthew's passage is from Isa 27:12-13.

Mat 24:29-31 "Immediately after the distress of those days "'the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from the sky, and the heavenly bodies will be shaken.' (30) "Then will appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven. And then all the peoples of the earth will mourn when they see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory. (31) And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other.

Marks's passage is from Deu 30:4.

Mar 13:24-27 "But in those days, following that distress, "'the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; (25) the stars will fall from the sky, and the heavenly bodies will be shaken.' (26) "At that time people will see the Son of Man coming in clouds with great power and glory. (27) And he will send his angels and gather his elect from the four winds, from the ends of the earth to the ends of the heavens.


This paper has sought to show the continuous story line from Israel's promise to be a great nation in the Abrahamic Covenant and the land in the subsequent Land Covenant, their loss of use of the land, and the details of how they will regain the use of their land in the future.

Today we are witnessing the initial regathering of Jews from around the world to their ancestrial home in Israel. Yet today, Israel remains a state that is both secular without God, and with orthodox Jews clinging to Old Testament Law in the rejection of their Messiah. Those moving to Israel are regathering in the land in unbelief. Yet, the prophets tell us that following this regathering there will be a time of Tribulation, during which Israel will repent and cry out for Messiah to return, resulting in their regeneration. Their regeneration will be in preparation for their final regathering and permanent occupation of the land during the Millennial Kingdom.

It should be clear to any reader of scripture that Israel is an ethnic term that denotes physical descendants of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. The practice of spiritualizing the term Israel to include the believing Gentiles or the Body of Christ is simply not supported in the body of scripture presented here. The New Testament writers would not subsequently redefine Israel, the physical descendants of Jacob, as anything other than national Israel.

We all have much to look forward to in the future as the Millennial Kingdom approaches us through the passage of time. Our most blessed days are ahead of us, whether we are ethnic Israel, the regenerated church, or future Tribulation survivors.

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